Government on the Web http://www.governmentontheweb.org/?q=tag/Citizen-Government%20Interactions en Modeling the Rise in Internet-based Petitions http://www.governmentontheweb.org/?q=publications/83 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-publication-type"> <div class="field-label">Type:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Article </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-pub-experiment"> <div class="field-label">Experiment?:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> No </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-content-taxonomy field-field-publication-cat"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Collective Action </div> <div class="field-item even"> Big Data </div> <div class="field-item odd"> Citizen-Government Interactions </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-date field-field-publication-date"> <div class="field-label">Date:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <span class="date-display-single">Aug 2013</span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-text field-field-publication-citation"> <div class="field-label">Citation:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p>Yasseri, T., Hale, S.A., and Margetts, H. Modeling the Rise in Internet-based Petitions. Under review. <a href="http://arxiv.org/abs/1308.0239" title="http://arxiv.org/abs/1308.0239">http://arxiv.org/abs/1308.0239</a></p> </div> </div> </div> <p>Collective action taking place on Internet platforms leaves a digital imprint which may be harvested to better understand the dynamics of mobilization. This ‘big data’ offers social science researchers the potential for new forms of analysis, using real-time transactional data based on entire populations, rather than sample-based surveys of what people think they did or might do. This paper uses a big data approach to track the growth of about 20,000 petitions to the UK Government over two years, analyzing the rate of growth and the outreach mechanism. The number of signatures was collected for all petitions with an hourly resolution. The vast majority of petitions did not achieve any measure of success; over 99 percent failed to get the 10,000 signatures required for an official response, and only 0.1 percent attained the 100,000 required for a parliamentary debate. We analyze the data through a multiplicative process model framework to explain the growth of signatures. We have defined and measured an average outreach factor for petitions and show that it decays very fast (reducing to 0.1% after 10 hours); after 24 hours, a petition’s fate is virtually set. </p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: petitions, collective action, e-democracy, big data, popularity dynamics</p> http://www.governmentontheweb.org/?q=publications/83#comments Big Data Citizen-Government Interactions Collective Action ippps Thu, 01 Aug 2013 14:02:25 +0000 Scott A. Hale 83 at http://www.governmentontheweb.org Petition Growth and Success Rates on the UK No. 10 Downing Street Website http://www.governmentontheweb.org/?q=publications/82 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-publication-type"> <div class="field-label">Type:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Article </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-pub-experiment"> <div class="field-label">Experiment?:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> No </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-content-taxonomy field-field-publication-cat"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Big Data </div> <div class="field-item even"> Collective Action </div> <div class="field-item odd"> Citizen-Government Interactions </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-date field-field-publication-date"> <div class="field-label">Date:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <span class="date-display-single">May 2013</span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-text field-field-publication-citation"> <div class="field-label">Citation:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p>Scott A. Hale, Helen Margetts, and Taha Yasseri. 2013. Petition growth and success rates on the UK No. 10 Downing Street website. In Proceedings of the 5th Annual ACM Web Science Conference (WebSci '13). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 132-138.<br /> [<a href="http://arxiv.org/abs/1304.0588">Pre-print</a>] [<a href="http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2464464.2464518">Published Version</a>]</p> </div> </div> </div> <p>Now that so much of collective action takes place online, web-generated data can further understanding of the mechanics of Internet-based mobilisation. This trace data offers social science researchers the potential for new forms of analysis, using real-time transactional data based on entire populations, rather than sample-based surveys of what people think they did or might do. This paper uses a `big data' approach to track the growth of over 8,000 petitions to the UK Government on the No. 10 Downing Street website for two years, analysing the rate of growth per day and testing the hypothesis that the distribution of daily change will be leptokurtic (rather than normal) as previous research on agenda setting would suggest. This hypothesis is confirmed, suggesting that Internet-based mobilisation is characterized by tipping points (or punctuated equilibria) and explaining some of the volatility in online collective action. We find also that most successful petitions grow quickly and that the number of signatures a petition receives on its first day is a significant factor in explaining the overall number of signatures a petition receives during its lifetime. These findings have implications for the strategies of those initiating petitions and the design of web sites with the aim of maximising citizen engagement with policy issues.</p> http://www.governmentontheweb.org/?q=publications/82#comments Big Data Citizen-Government Interactions Collective Action ippps Thu, 01 Aug 2013 13:57:39 +0000 Scott A. Hale 82 at http://www.governmentontheweb.org Interactive Map of Central Government Online http://www.governmentontheweb.org/?q=blog/2012/10/interactive-map-central-government-online <div class="field field-type-content-taxonomy field-field-blog-tags"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Big Data </div> <div class="field-item even"> Citizen-Government Interactions </div> <div class="field-item odd"> Digital Era Governance </div> </div> </div> <div class="all-attached-images"><div class="image-attach-body image-attach-node-78" style="width: 100px;"><a href="/?q=content/ukgov2-620png"><img src="http://www.governmentontheweb.org/sites/governmentontheweb.org/files/images/ukgov2-620.thumbnail.png" alt="ukgov2-620.png" title="ukgov2-620.png" class="image image-thumbnail " width="100" height="64" /></a></div> </div><p>We have collected and visualized a pilot crawl of UK Central Government websites in late 2011, showing all hyperlinks between central departments and the size of departmental web sites. This work was funded by the <a href="/projects/70">ESRC Internet, Public Policy and Political Science project</a> and the JISC-funded <a href="http://blogs.oii.ox.ac.uk/vis/">InteractiveVis project</a>. The UK government digital landscape is set for some major changes with the replacement of the direct.gov portal with the new gov.uk portal --- it will be interesting to see the difference in network configuration when we carry out the crawl again later this year.</p> <!--break--><!--break--><p>Please click the image below for an <a href="http://oxfordinternetinstitute.github.com/InteractiveVis/network/?config=config_ukgov.json">interactive HTML5 exploration of the crawl data</a>. (Please note, this requires an up-to-date browser: Firefox, Chrome, Opera, IE9+.)</p> <p><a href="http://oxfordinternetinstitute.github.com/InteractiveVis/network/?config=config_ukgov.json"><img src="/sites/governmentontheweb.org/files/images/ukgov2-620.png" /></a></p> <style> .all-attached-images {display: none;} </style> http://www.governmentontheweb.org/?q=blog/2012/10/interactive-map-central-government-online#comments Big Data Citizen-Government Interactions Digital Era Governance frontpage ippps Tue, 23 Oct 2012 08:15:20 +0000 Scott A. Hale 79 at http://www.governmentontheweb.org Draft Paper: Understanding the Mechanics of Online Collective Action Using 'Big Data' http://www.governmentontheweb.org/?q=publications/76 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-publication-type"> <div class="field-label">Type:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Paper </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-pub-experiment"> <div class="field-label">Experiment?:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> No </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-content-taxonomy field-field-publication-cat"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Collective Action </div> <div class="field-item even"> Citizen-Government Interactions </div> <div class="field-item odd"> Big Data </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-date field-field-publication-date"> <div class="field-label">Date:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <span class="date-display-single">Mar 2012</span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-text field-field-publication-citation"> <div class="field-label">Citation:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p>Hale, Scott A and Margetts, Helen, Understanding the Mechanics of Online Collective Action Using 'Big Data' (March 22, 2012). Available at SSRN: <a href="http://ssrn.com/abstract=2041856" title="http://ssrn.com/abstract=2041856">http://ssrn.com/abstract=2041856</a> or <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2041856" title="http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2041856">http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2041856</a></p> </div> </div> </div> <p>Now that so much of collective action takes place online, web-generated data can further understanding of the mechanics of Internet-based mobilization. This 'big data' offers social science researchers the potential for new forms of analysis, using real-time transactional data based on entire populations, rather than sample-based surveys of what people think they did or might do. This paper uses a 'big data' approach to track the growth of over 8,000 petitions to the UK Government on the No. 10 Downing Street website for two years, analyzing the rate of growth per day and testing the hypothesis that the distribution of daily change will be leptokurtic (rather than normal) as previous research on agenda setting would suggest. This hypothesis is confirmed, suggesting that Internet-based mobilization is characterized by tipping points (or punctuated equilibria) and explaining some of the volatility in online collective action. We find also that most successful petitions grow quickly and that the number of signatures a petition receives on its first day is the most significant factor explaining the overall number of signatures a petition receives during its lifetime. These findings could have implications for the strategies of those initiating petitions and the design of web sites with the aim of maximizing citizen engagement with policy issues. </p> <p>The full draft paper is available on SSRN. We welcome feedback on it.<br /> <a href="http://ssrn.com/abstract=2041856 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2041856">http://ssrn.com/abstract=2041856 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2041856</a></p> http://www.governmentontheweb.org/?q=publications/76#comments Big Data Citizen-Government Interactions Collective Action frontpage ippps Sun, 29 Apr 2012 16:45:35 +0000 Scott A. Hale 76 at http://www.governmentontheweb.org Big Data: Demonstrating the Value of the UK Web Domain Dataset for Social Science Research http://www.governmentontheweb.org/?q=projects/74 <div class="field field-type-date field-field-project-date"> <div class="field-label">Project Date:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <span class="date-display-start">Feb 2012</span><span class="date-display-separator"> - </span><span class="date-display-end">Aug 2013</span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-content-taxonomy field-field-project-cat"> <div class="field-label">Categories:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Digital Era Governance </div> <div class="field-item even"> Citizen-Government Interactions </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-pub-experiment"> <div class="field-label">Experiment?:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> No </div> </div> </div> <p>The Oxford Internet Institute Government on the Web team is excited to announce a new big data project: <em><a href="http://www.oii.ox.ac.uk/research/projects/?id=88">Big Data: Demonstrating the Value of the UK Web Domain Dataset for Social Science Research</a></em>.</p> <p>The potential of web archives for link analysis research has been well documented, but this potential has yet to be realised and demonstrated in good research. This project aims to increase visibility, accessibility, and ease-of-use of the JISC UK Web Domain Dataset, a 30 terabyte web archive of the .uk country-code top level domain (ccTLD) collected from 1996 to 2010. The project will extract link graphs from the data, assess the feasibility and impact of using the .uk ccTLD as a boundary for UK web presence, and conduct and disseminate high-quality social science research examples using the collection. It will also trial tools and procedures to make the data more easily accessible including tools for remote access and assessing the feasibility of developing code to allow the easy import of link data from the collection into NodeXL or other network data analysis software packages to allow for easy access, visualisation, and analysis of subsets of the corpus.</p> <p>The current and transient nature of the Web means that new information replaces older information constantly without any record of the previous state (or versions) of the same information. While new information is being added, existing information also disappears from the Web, leaving a significant gap in our knowledge of the historical web and potentially in social history and our understanding of change over time. The JISC UK Web Domain Dataset, maintained by the British Library who are partnering with us in this project, contains webpages within the .uk ccTLD from 1996 to 2010. We are excited to explore this dataset from a Big Data prospective and to enhance the collection to allow for easier future use.</p> <p><a href="http://www.oii.ox.ac.uk/research/projects/?id=88">Further details of this project</a> is available on the Oxford Internet Institute's website.</p> http://www.governmentontheweb.org/?q=projects/74#comments bigdata Citizen-Government Interactions Digital Era Governance frontpage Tue, 07 Feb 2012 14:56:50 +0000 Scott A. Hale 74 at http://www.governmentontheweb.org The Internet, Public Policy and Political Science: Collective Action, Governance and Citizen-Government Interactions in the Digital Era http://www.governmentontheweb.org/?q=projects/70 <div class="field field-type-date field-field-project-date"> <div class="field-label">Project Date:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <span class="date-display-start">Apr 2011</span><span class="date-display-separator"> - </span><span class="date-display-end">Apr 2014</span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-content-taxonomy field-field-project-cat"> <div class="field-label">Categories:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Digital Era Governance </div> <div class="field-item even"> Citizen-Government Interactions </div> <div class="field-item odd"> Collective Action </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-pub-experiment"> <div class="field-label">Experiment?:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Yes </div> </div> </div> <p>We are currently engaged in a three-year research programme on The Internet, Public Policy and Political Science: Collective Action, Governance and Citizen-Government Interactions in the Digital Era, which started 1st April 2011.</p> <p>More information about this project is available in the <a href="http://www.oii.ox.ac.uk/news/?id=516"><strong>OII press release</strong></a>, and <a href="http://www.oii.ox.ac.uk/research/projects/?id=71"><strong>project description page</strong></a>.</p> <p>This research programme aims to assess where political science understanding, knowledge and theory should be re-examined and developed in light of widespread use of the Internet, and to develop methodologies to study online behaviour.</p> <h2>Outputs (ongoing)</h2> <ul> <li><a href="/publications/82">Petition Growth and Success Rates on the UK No. 10 Downing Street Website</a></li> <li><a href="/publications/83">Modeling the Rise in Internet-based Petitions</a></li> <li><a href="/publications/84">Leadership without Leaders? Starters and Followers in Collective Action on the Internet</a> </li><li> </li><li><a href="/publications/69">Draft: Applying Social Influence to Collective Action: Heterogeneous Personality Effects</a></li> <li><a href="/publications/68">Social Information and Political Participation on the Internet: an Experiment</a></li> </ul> http://www.governmentontheweb.org/?q=projects/70#comments Citizen-Government Interactions Collective Action Digital Era Governance Wed, 28 Sep 2011 08:52:16 +0000 Scott A. Hale 70 at http://www.governmentontheweb.org New research project: The Internet, Public Policy and Political Science http://www.governmentontheweb.org/?q=blog/2011/04/new-research-project-internet-public-policy-and-political-science <div class="field field-type-content-taxonomy field-field-blog-tags"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Digital Era Governance </div> <div class="field-item even"> Collective Action </div> <div class="field-item odd"> Citizen-Government Interactions </div> </div> </div> <p>We will begin a new three-year research programme on <em>The Internet, Public Policy and Political Science: Collective Action, Governance and Citizen-Government Interactions in the Digital Era</em> starting 1st April.</p> <p>More information about this project is available in the <a href="http://www.oii.ox.ac.uk/news/?id=516"><strong>OII press release</strong></a>, and <a href="http://www.oii.ox.ac.uk/research/projects/?id=71"><strong>project description page</strong></a>.</p> <!--break--><!--break--><p>This research programme aims to assess where political science understanding, knowledge and theory should be re-examined and developed in light of widespread use of the Internet, and to develop methodologies to study online behaviour.</p> http://www.governmentontheweb.org/?q=blog/2011/04/new-research-project-internet-public-policy-and-political-science#comments Citizen-Government Interactions Collective Action Digital Era Governance frontpage ippps Fri, 01 Apr 2011 17:14:48 +0000 Scott A. Hale 67 at http://www.governmentontheweb.org Study on User Expectations of a Life Events Approach for Designing e-Government Services http://www.governmentontheweb.org/?q=projects/47 <div class="field field-type-date field-field-project-date"> <div class="field-label">Project Date:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <span class="date-display-single">Jan 2010</span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-content-taxonomy field-field-project-cat"> <div class="field-label">Categories:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Citizen-Government Interactions </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-pub-experiment"> <div class="field-label">Experiment?:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Yes </div> </div> </div> <p>The Study on User Expectations of a Life Events Approach for Designing e-Government Services project for the European Commission investigated the new government landscape online and how eGovernment expectations among citizens and eGovernment services have changed. Project partners included: <a href="http://www.deloitte.com/">Deloitte</a>, the <a href="http://www.oii.ox.ac.uk/">Oxford Internet Institute</a>, and <a href="http://www.dearmedia.be/">Dear Media</a>.</p> <p>The project involved user experiments designed and conducted by Helen Margetts (OII), Scott Hale (OII), and Stephane Reissfelder (OII) to investigate how citizens responded to a range of life events involving more than one European Member State in an online setting. The experiments, involving a total of 130 subjects, were conducted in OxLab, a social science experimental laboratory jointly run by the Oxford Internet Institute and Said Business School, in seven sessions from 26 May to 2 June 2010. The subjects were asked to find information on the Internet relating to a number of scenarios involving life events. They were randomly allocated across a control group (where they could use any method they liked to find the information) and a treatment group (where they were presented with links to government portals and web sites relating to the individual life events). Subjects participated via a custom built interface and were incentivized with a variable payment between £7 and £13.50, according to the number of correct answers provided. All online behaviour was tracked to create a dataset, which was used to analyse differences in the strategies of subjects in treatment and control groups. This allowed the research team to evaluate the effectiveness of government online provision in satisfying the information needs of EU citizens facing life events.</p> <p><strong>Outputs:</strong><br /> A report containing information on the findings of the user experiments as well as desk research from project partners was presented to Unit H2, ICT for Government and Public Services, of the Directorate General for Information Society and Media of the European Commission in July 2010. </p> http://www.governmentontheweb.org/?q=projects/47#comments Citizen-Government Interactions Sat, 10 Jul 2010 12:15:43 +0000 Scott A. Hale 47 at http://www.governmentontheweb.org Department for Work and Pensions: Communicating with customers http://www.governmentontheweb.org/?q=publications/27 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-publication-type"> <div class="field-label">Type:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Report </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-pub-experiment"> <div class="field-label">Experiment?:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Yes </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-content-taxonomy field-field-publication-cat"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Citizen-Government Interactions </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-date field-field-publication-date"> <div class="field-label">Date:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <span class="date-display-single">May 2009</span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-text field-field-publication-citation"> <div class="field-label">Citation:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p>Raraty, D., Dorrell, D., Dunleavy, P., Goldchluk, S., Khan, M. K., Tinkler J., Towers, E., Margetts, H., Escher, T., Reissfelder, S., &amp; Hinds, L. (2009) <em>Department for Work and Pensions: Communicating with customers</em>. National Audit Office Report by the Comptroller and Auditor General, HC 421 Session 2008-2009, 7 May.</p> </div> </div> </div> <p>On 7 May 2009 the National Audit Office (NAO) has published a report on information exchange in benefits delivery: Department for Work and Pensions: Communicating with Customers, produced by a joint OII-LSE research team led by Professors Helen Margetts (OII) and Patrick Dunleavy (LSE). </p> <p>The report looks at the information exchanges between citizens and the Department that underpin applications for social security benefits and finds that the Department has placed a reducing emphasis on issuing leaflets and had a significant growth in telephone enquiries and in online information provision about benefits on the internet.</p> <p>The report found that while the Department has significantly changed the way in which it provides information in recent years, with a growth in the use of telephone and the Internet, there is still progress to be made in moving services online. Some forms are still unnecessarily long and guidance notes are complicated and the Department's computer generated letters are overly long and confusing for customers. <a href="http://www.oii.ox.ac.uk/people/faculty.cfm?id=2"><img src="/sites/governmentontheweb.org/files/helen_margetts_small_0.jpg" alt="Professor Helen Margetts" vspace="5" width="130" align="left" border="0" height="87" hspace="8" /></a> </p> <p>Professor Helen Margetts said: <em>"The Department could do more to capitalise on the potential of the Internet. It is not yet possible to apply for most benefits on-line and only 0.2 per cent of all citizen contacts are made electronically, even though 38 per cent of DWP customers are enthusiastic about online services. Benefits-related information is now provided via the Directgov website, but users taking part in experiments run at the Oxford Internet Institute found information in some areas difficult to find."</em> </p> <h2>Contact</h2> <p><a href="http://www.lse.ac.uk/collections/LSEPublicPolicy/whosWho.htm" target="_blank">Jane Tinkler</a> (LSE), Project Manager, LSE Public Policy Group 020 7955 6064 or j.tinkler [a t] lse.ac.uk</p> <p>The research methods applied were:</p> <ul> <li>Case studies of four benefits: Attendance Allowance, Pension Credit, Jobseekers Allowance and Maternity Allowance;</li> <li>Detailed analysis of a sample of files from each of the case study benefits;</li> <li>Focus groups with existing and potential benefit customers;</li> <li>Experiments in <a href="cp-oxlab.asp">OXlab</a> to explore potential customers experiences of finding and using online information;</li> <li>Interviews with DWP staff and visits to DWP offices along with interactions with stakeholder groups; and </li> <li>Comparisons with governments from other countries and the private sector.</li> </ul> <p>This research was led by Professors <a href="http://www.lse.ac.uk/people/p.dunleavy@lse.ac.uk/" target="_blank">Professor Patrick Dunleavy</a> (LSE) and <a href="http://www.oii.ox.ac.uk/people/faculty.cfm?id=2" target="_blank">Professor Helen Margetts</a> (Oxford). <a href="http://www.lse.ac.uk/collections/LSEPublicPolicy/whosWho.htm" target="_blank">Jane Tinkler</a> (LSE) was Project Manager working with <a href="http://www.lse.ac.uk/collections/LSEPublicPolicy/whosWho.htm" target="_blank">Sofia Goldchluk</a>, <a href="http://www.lse.ac.uk/collections/LSEPublicPolicy/whosWho.htm" target="_blank">Mohamed Khalid Khan</a> and <a href="http://www.lse.ac.uk/collections/LSEPublicPolicy/whosWho.htm" target="_blank">Ed Towers</a> (all LSE) as well as <a href="http://people.oii.ox.ac.uk/escher/" target="_blank">Tobias Escher</a> and Stephane Reissfelder (both Oxford). This research started in September 2008 and completed in March 2009.</p> <table id="attachments" class="sticky-enabled"> <thead><tr><th>Attachment</th><th>Size</th> </tr></thead> <tbody> <tr class="odd"><td><a href="http://www.governmentontheweb.org/sites/governmentontheweb.org/files/NAO_DWP_Communicating_with_Customers_-_full_report.pdf">Full Report</a></td><td>438.09 KB</td> </tr> <tr class="even"><td><a href="http://www.governmentontheweb.org/sites/governmentontheweb.org/files/NAO_DWP_Communicating_with_Customers_-_executive_summary.pdf">Executive Summary</a></td><td>153.8 KB</td> </tr> <tr class="odd"><td><a href="http://www.governmentontheweb.org/sites/governmentontheweb.org/files/NAO_DWP_Communicating_with_Customers_-_press_release.pdf">NAO Press Release</a></td><td>77.85 KB</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> http://www.governmentontheweb.org/?q=publications/27#comments Citizen-Government Interactions Wed, 13 May 2009 16:02:55 +0000 Scott A. Hale 27 at http://www.governmentontheweb.org Participation in Internet-mediated Interactions http://www.governmentontheweb.org/?q=projects/19 <div class="field field-type-date field-field-project-date"> <div class="field-label">Project Date:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <span class="date-display-start">Aug 2004</span><span class="date-display-separator"> - </span><span class="date-display-end">Aug 2007</span> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-content-taxonomy field-field-project-cat"> <div class="field-label">Categories:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Citizen-Government Interactions </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-pub-experiment"> <div class="field-label">Experiment?:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Yes </div> </div> </div> <p>This UCL-based project forms part of the Communications Research Network<br /> (CRN), a Knowledge Integration Community funded by the <a href="http://www.cambridge-mit.org" target="_blank">Cambridge-MIT<br /> Institute</a> and co-funded by British Telecom. It brings together researchers from Cambridge University, MIT and University College<br /> London – economists, public policy experts, management analysts, engineers and computer scientists – who together provide a uniquely<br /> broad and deep insight into all aspects of tomorrow’s communications and computing technologies and their exploitation (see <a href="http://www.communicationsresearch.net/" target="_blank">www.communicationsresearch.net</a>)<br /> <br /><br /><br /> Widespread use of the internet by individuals and organisations across society and the economy has the potential to drive innovation in public policy and economic activity. But if design does not take into account the factors that determine take-up of on-line transactions then technological innovation will not drive policy and economic innovation in this way. This research is aimed at analysing the factors that determine participation in internet-mediated transactions. <br /><br /><br /> <em>Principal Investigators</em><br /> <a href="http://www.oii.ox.ac.uk/people/faculty.cfm?id=2" target="_blank"><strong>Professor Helen Margetts</strong></a> (Oxford Internet Institute, Univ. of Oxford &amp; UCL School of Public Policy)<br /> <a href="http://www.ee.ucl.ac.uk/%7Eicox/" target="_blank"><strong>Professor Ingemar Cox</strong></a> (UCL Computer Science/Electrical Engineering)<br /> <a href="http://www.ucl.ac.uk/%7Euctpshu/" target="_blank"><strong>Professor Steffen Huck</strong></a> (UCL Department of Economics)</p> <p> <em>Research Fellows</em><br /> <a href="http://www.cs.ucl.ac.uk/staff/V.Petricek" target="_blank"><strong>Vaclav Petricek</strong></a> (UCL Department of Computer Science)<br /> <a href="http://people.oii.ox.ac.uk/escher/" target="_blank"><strong>Tobias Escher</strong></a> (UCL School of Public Policy)<br /> <a href="http://www.econ.ucl.ac.uk/displayProfile.php?staff_key=69" target="_blank"><strong>Martin Boeg</strong></a> (UCL Department of Economics) </p> <p>This research benefits greatly from applying a multi-disciplinary approach to a topic normally studied within disciplines and sectors, whereas it is anticipated that government can learn from business, public policy analysts can learn from economists and technologists can have valuable input to economic and social research. The research has two key themes:</p> <ul> <li><a href="#webstructure">THEME 1: Developing a methodology for evaluating the web structure of e-government</a></li> <li><a href="#fundraising">THEME 2: Investigating design mechanisms for fund-raising on the internet</a></li> </ul> <p><a name="webstructure"><strong>THEME 1: The Web Structure of E-Government</strong></a><br /><br /> When policy-makers design government portals for citizens or business, they assume users will prefer an integrated �joined-up� government approach. Yet evidence suggests that combining finder sites and search engines on the Internet at large can provide more effective access to government information and services and users may prefer to deal with on-line government in this more disaggregated way. This part of the project explores how we might measure the �health� of e-government, through assessing the accessibility and visibility of government domains and comparing these metrics against users� experience of interacting with government on line in various types of experimental conditions. The development of both structural and user metrics of this kind may be the key to strategies for driving up take up and maximizing the benefits of government online.<br /> <br /><br /><br /> In the first phase of this part of the project we have been developing a methodology<br /> for evaluating the structure of web sites and applying it to government domains,<br /> investigating the link structure of e-government for the first time. Preliminary<br /> findings including the development of metrics for navigability and nodality (that<br /> is, visibility or centrality to informational networks) for the web sites of government agencies<br /> from Canada, the USA, the UK, New Zealand and the Czech Republic have been written<br /> up in a paper submitted to the World Wide Web Conference 2006 (see link below).<br /> As we develop further the methodology for assessing the �health� of government<br /> (and other) domains we hope that these results will be useful to governments<br /> to make their on-line presence more accessible and visible to citizens, thereby<br /> increasing nodality as a policy tool.</p> <p>In the second phase of the project, we have been comparing our structural measures against user metrics, collected via lab-based experiments, in order to verify that sites or communities which emerge as �healthy� in terms of navigability and nodality also score well when experienced by users.<br /> The structural metrics were applied to the foreign office websites of Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States. Subsequently we conducted a user experiment with 135 subjects in order to measure the quality of the sites from a user's perspective. Our presentation during the World Wide Web conference 2006 gives a summary of our results (see link below) and reports our results both for structural metrics as well as for the user metrics.</p> <table align="center" border="0" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="1" width="505"> <tbody> <tr> <td align="left" bgcolor="#cccccc" valign="top" width="405"><span class="contentTitle">&nbsp;<a href="/sites/governmentontheweb.org/files/WWW2006.pdf"><strong>Download:</strong> PRESENTATION Web Structure of E-Government</a></span></td> <td align="left" bgcolor="#cccccc" valign="top" width="100"><span class="contentTitle">&nbsp;<em>(830kb/PDF)</em></span></td> </tr> <tr> <td align="left" bgcolor="#cccccc" valign="top" width="405"><span class="contentTitle">&nbsp;<a href="/sites/governmentontheweb.org/files/WWW2006-Web_Structure_of_E_Government.pdf"><strong>Download:</strong> PAPER Web Structure of E-Government</a></span></td> <td align="left" bgcolor="#cccccc" valign="top" width="100"><span class="contentTitle">&nbsp;<em>(1,425kb/PDF)</em></span></td> </tr> <tr> <td align="left" bgcolor="#cccccc" valign="top" width="405"><span class="contentTitle">&nbsp;<a href="/sites/governmentontheweb.org/files/Margetts_et_al_APSA_2006.pdf"><strong>Download:</strong> PAPER Governing from the Centre? Comparing the Nodality of Digital Governments</a></span></td> <td align="left" bgcolor="#cccccc" valign="top" width="100"><span class="contentTitle">&nbsp;<em>(386kb/PDF)</em></span></td> </tr> <tr> <td colspan="2" align="left" valign="top"><br /></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p><a name="fundraising"><strong>THEME 2: Fundraising on the Internet</strong></a><br /><br /> The voluntary sector is an important part of the economy�in 2001/2 it generated income of approx. �20 billion, holding net assets of approx. �70 billion. Yet we have a very incomplete understanding about what influences the amount of funds it receives, what influences individuals willingness to give and the relative attractiveness of competing fundraising methods. In this part of the project we study fundraising on the internet. The internet allows efficient mass communication and transaction costs are, if there is sufficient trust in security, potentially very low. Fundraising on the internet also gives the opportunity to provide large amounts of detailed information that with traditional communication channels would be virtually impossible to provide (such as up-to-date information about the money already raised in a specific campaign, fundraising targets, seed money and matching donations) which may be an important determinant for giving behaviour. We plan to investigate the role of these determinants in more detail, both by gathering existing data and generating new (experimental) data.<br /> <br /><br /><br /> In the first phase we have analysed data from <a href="http://www.justgiving.com" target="_blank">www.justgiving.com</a>, an internet site that allows members of the public to design their own small- or large-scale fundraising campaigns for the charity of their choice. Initial findings suggest that information available about the amount given by the first donors to individual campaigns significantly affects subsequent donations. We are currently exploring these findings, collecting a larger dataset of campaigns and contributions to verify our results and preparing findings for publication. In the second phase we plan to use the website for a field experiment where we will run a number of fundraising campaigns according to an experimental design, such as experimentally varying the amount of money already raised before the campaign starts. The specificities of the experimental design will, however, be only determined once we have a good understanding of existing data.<br /> <br /><br /><br /> From this research we expect to gain an understanding of how fundraising on the internet currently functions, both in terms of how charities and donors use the internet to communicate and interact. We also expect to gain insight into some key determinants of giving behaviour that are essential for the efficient design of fundraising mechanisms. This is important because without a proper understanding of the mechanics of fundraising, scarce resources will inevitably be wasted�resources that could otherwise serve the charitable aims of the fundraising institutions.</p> http://www.governmentontheweb.org/?q=projects/19#comments Citizen-Government Interactions Mon, 11 Aug 2008 15:29:20 +0000 Scott A. Hale 19 at http://www.governmentontheweb.org